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As the de-segregation of the American South gained traction in the 1950s, the debate about black intelligence resurfaced.Audrey Shuey, funded by Draper's Pioneer Fund, published a new analysis of Yerkes' tests, concluding that blacks really were of inferior intellect to whites.Jensen continued to publish on the issue until his death in 2012.Another revival of public debate followed the appearance of The Bell Curve (1994), a book by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, who strongly emphasized the societal effects of low IQ (focusing in most chapters strictly on the non-Hispanic white population of the United States).The debate reemerged again in 1969, when Arthur Jensen championed the view that for genetic reasons, Africans were less intelligent than whites and that compensatory education for African-American children was therefore doomed to be ineffective.
Jensen's last book-length publication, The g Factor: The Science of Mental Ability, was published a few years later in 1998.
In the 1920s, groups of eugenics lobbyists argued that this demonstrated that African-Americans and certain immigrant groups were of inferior intellect to Anglo-Saxon whites due to innate biological differences, using this as an argument for policies of racial segregation.
Soon, other studies appeared, contesting these conclusions and arguing instead that the Army tests had not adequately controlled for environmental factors such as socio-economic and educational inequality between blacks and whites.
The concept of intelligence and the degree to which intelligence is measurable is a matter of debate.
While there is some consensus about how to define intelligence, it is not universally accepted that it is something that can be unequivocally measured by a single figure.
This study was used by segregationists as an argument that it was to the advantage of black children to be educated separately from the superior white children.